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From the early Archaic through the end of the Classical periods for a Greek city-state to be an independent, viable political entity it needed to be economically self-sufficient and able to defend its citizens and its territory from neighboring, opportunistic poleis. The defense of the city-state depended upon a trained citizen army and well-built and maintained fortification walls around its urban core. Over time as military tactics evolved and new military siege technologies were developed the wall and gate systems became more complex and substantial.

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78-30-023 Beneventum, Arch of Trajan, face-on and angle views of country face

Beneventum, Arch of Trajan, face-on and angle views of country face (Professor Fred Winter, 1978)

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From time to time the Library of the Institute amasses a quantity of duplicate books, monographs and journal issues, mostly the result of donations and the acquisition of newer editions. When the bookshelves in the Institute’s office are overflowing we put the lot up for sale to the highest bidders. This iteration of the Sale started in January and continues until the 31st of March. We are currently selling over 200 books and monographs, plus 200 or so periodical volumes.

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